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Metabolomics [1] is a newly emerging field of 'omics' research.

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The metabolome [2] is defined as the complete set of small molecule endogenous metabolites, intermediates and metabolism products found in an organism. It can provide an instantaneous snapshot of the entire physiology of a living being. With its potential to provide a comprehensive snapshot of the biochemistry of a biological system, metabolomics can be used for life science research in areas such as disease and biomarker discovery. Metabolomics can also be combined with genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics studies, which are also known as multi-omics, to provide comprehensive insights into biological processes.

Join the Community! Metabolomics Software Solutions. The stimulus could also be non-biological, such as food processing; as a consequence, metabolomics has huge potential across several application areas, including food and nutrition. Because metabolomics aims to comprehensively identify and measure a large number of compounds in complex mixtures, its goals are a challenge for standard analytical chemistry.

As a result, mass spectrometry has emerged as an alternative to NMR-based metabolomics, offers high selectivity and sensitivity, and has the potential to assess metabolites in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. For scientists without specialized training in the field of mass spectrometry, using this approach can feel daunting.

There are four fundamental areas one must master in order to be successful in metabolomics:. As endogenous metabolites are diverse in their physico-chemical properties, as well as varying in abundance, a true comprehensive metabolomics study will require orthogonal sample preparation and separation techniques. In reality, most experiments are not comprehensive and there is a bias towards certain classes of compounds.

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As a result, such instruments are often coupled to mass spectrometers, where the ability to mass-resolve the peaks in a gas chromatogram allows for greater confidence in sample identification. This type of on-line analysis provides constant qualitative and quantitative information on the evolution of chemical concentrations or the formation of new species in an active reaction mixture. Such an analysis is crucial in many biotech and fermentation processes that require meticulously balanced oxygen uptake and carbon production rates for optimum yields.

GCMS Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

On-Line GC-MS also enables scientists to create automated feedback loops for control of the reaction parameters, allowing fine tuning of the reactions behaviour. Real-time gas analysis has numerous other applications such as for atmospheric monitoring and exploring the efficiency of catalysts for carbon dioxide capture and reduction. A standard GC-MS experiment may have a total run time of approximately 20 minutes from the initial injection to the final data.

Therefore, it is necessary to design analysers with significantly shorter run times and, to make an instrument versatile for a diverse range of uses, to make sample inlets that can be used with materials in a variety of phases.

This also has the advantage of reducing sample preparation times. The HPR series by Hiden are a range of systems specifically targeted to resolve these issues. The section regarding GC Conditions, Derivatization, and Mass Spectral Interpretation of Specific Compound Types has the same number of compound types as the original edition, but the information in each section has been expanded to not only explain some of the spectra but to also explain why certain fragmentations take place.

The number of Appendices has been increased from 12 to The Appendix on Atomic Masses and Isotope Abundances has been expanded to provide tools to aid in determination of elemental composition from isotope peak intensity ratios. An appendix with examples on "Steps to follow in the determination of elemental compositions based on isotope peak intensities" has been added.

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